From this review of the record certain things clearly appear:
I. That the destruction of Filipino life during the war has been so
frightful that it cannot be explained as the result of ordinary
civilized warfare. General J. M. Bell's statement that one-sixth of
the natives of Luzon - that is, some six hundred thousand persons -
had been killed or died of dengue fever in the first two years of the
war is evidence enough on this point, especially when coupled with his
The loss of life by killing alone has been very great, but I think not
one man has been slain except where his death served the legitimate
purpose of war. It has been thought necessary to adopt what in other
countries would be thought harsh measures,
but which Secretary Root calls measures of " marked humanity and
2. That at the very outset of the war there was strong reason to
believe that our troops were ordered by some officers to give no
quarter, and that no investigation was had because it was reported by
Lieut.-Colonel Crowder that the evidence " would implicate many
others," General Otis saying that the charge was " not very grievous
under the circumstances."
3. That from that time on, as is shown by the reports of killed and
wounded and by direct testimony, the practice continued.
4. That the War Department has never made any earnest effort to
investigate charges of this offence or to stop the practice.
5. That from the beginning of the war the practice of burning native
towns and villages and laying waste the country has continued.
* This statement is confirmed by the official report made by the
Secretary of the Civil Government in Batangas, the scene of General
Bell's operations. He says that the population has been reduced
one-third; ie., from 3oo,ooo to 2oo,ooo by the war and its attending
Title: Secretary Root's record. "Marked severities" in Philippine
warfare. An analysis of the law and facts bearing on the action and
utterances of President Roosevelt and Secretary Root.
Author: Storey, Moorfield, 1845-1929.