Chinese collaboration under the American occupation. VI

The command bivouacked for the night on the site of this engagement. The hope I had formed of reaching Antipolo by 1 o'clock of this day was not realized, solely because of the unanticipated condition of the trails by which the command was obliged to move and the delay thus experienced.
At 5 A. M. on the 4th instant the march was resumed. The Second Oregon regiment, with the battalion of the Ninth Infantry on its left, was deployed on the hills extending east from the rear of Taytay,to prevent advance of the enemy from the latter place, while the
remainder of the column continued on the trail. The killed and wounded and the considerable number of men otherwise disabled were transported by litters by Chinese coolies and insurgent prisoners, following the Oregon regiment over the hills, with a view of thus reaching the main road between Antipolo and Taytay, upon which the ambulances were to reach us.

Title: The official records of the Oregon volunteers in the Spanish warand Philippine insurrection

Author: Oregon. Adjutant-General's Office. Page 601

Chinese collaboration under the American occupation. V

Report of Maj. Herbert W. Cardwell, U. S. V., Chief Surgeon, First Division, Eighth Army Corps, April 21 to May 30, 1899.


SURGEON GENERAL UNITED STATES ARMY. (Through military channels.)

SIR: I have the honor to present here with a special report on the work of the medical department and Hospital Corps during the expedition under the command of Maj. Gen. H. W. Lawton, U. S. V., into the provinces of Bulacan, Nueve Ecija, and (A. M.) de la Pampanga from April 21 to May 30, 1899, inclusive.
On receipt of General Orders, No. 20, Headquarters First Division, Eighth Army Corps, dated Manila, P. I., April 19, 1899, designating the troops to take part in the expedition, I required a report from the medical officer of the designated troops as to the physical condition of the medical officers and Hospital Corps men of his command, and as to whether he was sufficiently supplied to carry out the movement contemplated, which was specified as to occupy ten days. Medical offcers.-Twenty-second U. S. Infantry, Capt. John A. Kulp, U. S. A., and Dr. Isaac W. Brewer, acting assistant surgeon, U. S. A.; Gale's squadron, Fourth U. S. Cavalry (three dismounted troops), Dr. G. W. Daywalt, acting assistant surgeon, U. S. A.; First North Dakota Volunteer Infantry, Maj. F. D. Pease-captain and assistant surgeon, Black being on sick leave; Scott's battery, Dr. E. K. Johnstone, acting assistant surgeon, U. S. A., who had not reported, but was hurried from Corregidor in time to take the field; Hawthorne's battery, no medical officer. Under verbal orders from the division commander I detailed Maj. George H. Penrose, brigade surgeon, U. S. V., as brigade surgeon on the expedition, and Lieut. F. M. Kemp, assistant surgeon, U. S. A., from the Fourteenth United States Infantry, to act as ambulance surgeon. I secured from Capt. F. R. Keefer, commanding officer of the ambulance company, four ambulances. These ambulances were in bad order, with leaky canvas and leaky water tanks, no tools, and no spare parts. Animals consisting of one team of four native ponies in bad order and two teams of two mules each, and for the ambulance I secured, through the division quartermaster, one team of four native ponies, the quality of which was not guaranteed, and which proved to be bad. Hearing semiofficially that battalions from Third U. S. Infantry, Oregon and Minnesota Volunteers, would join the column later, I investigated their condition as to medical officers and Hospital Corps men. Finding that the Third Infantry had no medical officer with them the chief surgeon borrowed, at my request, Dr. Van Wagemen from the hospital ship Relief, and secured an order from corps headquarters detailing Doctor Pitcher from the Seventeenth Infantry to the Third Infantry. I drew from the Quartermaster's Department twenty extra litters for the use of a squad of forty Chinese litter bearers furnished by the Quartermaster's Department and assigned by me pro rata to the different organizations. Maj. G. H. Penrose drew from the purveyor's storehouse sufficient medical and surgical supplies to enable him to conduct a brigade field hospital without tentage, and drew from the commissary one hundred rations in addition to liberal supply of beef extract, cocoa, and malted milk. The Quartermaster's Department was unable to furnish any transportation for these supplies, and it was necessary to load them into ambulances if they were to be carried at all. This seriously interfered with our facilities for transportation of the sick and wounded.

In this connection I desire to express the opinion that the Chinese coolie can be made to play a very important and useful part in any campaigning in these islands. If assured that he will receive his pay and rations he will do any amount of work and face any amount of rifle fire, but he requires to be under the constant supervision of some authority. In the Oregons each private of the hospital corps was charged with the oversight and made responsible for the presence at all times of two coolies with one litter, and the service rendered was excellent.

Title: The official records of the Oregon volunteers in the Spanish war and Philippine insurrection, page 581
Author: Oregon. Adjutant-General's Office.

Chinese collaboration under the American occupation. IV

During the day, May 4th, the wagon train left for Malolos to bring out supplies which would arrive there the day following; it was accompanied by the sick and wounded in ambulances. Much annoyance was caused by the Chinese coolies, furnished by the quartermaster department as litter bearers and laborers, wandering from the organizations to which they were attached and committing many minor depredations, necessitating the issue of the following orders:

In the Field, Baliuag, May 4, 1899.

Hereafter each Chinese coolie with his command will be required to wear upon his hat, or other conspicuous part of his clothing, a tag which will be legibly marked in English the name of the organization to which the wearer is assigned or belongs. Commencing to-morrow, the 5th instant, all such camp followers found without the identification tax above required will be arrested and turned over to the provost guard.
No coolie wearing such an identification tag will be required to perform labor for individuals or organizations than that to which he is assigned or belongs, and no unauthorized person will, in any way, interfere with any Chinaman not misconducting himself.
Commanding officers of organizations are charged with the prompt execution of the above orders, and will be held strictly accountable for the conduct of the coolies assigned or belonging to their respective commands.

By command of Major General Lawton: CLARENCE R. EDWARDS, AssistantAdjutant General

Chinese collaboration under the American occupation. III

The Third United States Infantry was posted at the approaches to the ford, where the advance portion of the column had rested the night before, to protect the passage of the transportation. The remainder of the command, with the wagon train, resumed the advance toward the river. The same conditions (or worse, if possible) as on the day previous continued to impede the progress of the wagon train. Captain Gale, with his dismounted squadron of the Fourth Cavalry, furnished the advance guard and convoy of the train, and with his entire command rendered valuable aid assisting in building bridges and making roads.
Lieutenant Hawthorne, with his mountain battery detachment, Maj. GeorgePenrose and Lieutenant Kemp, of the Medical Corps, with their hospital squads and Chinese litter bearers, lent willing hands to overcome what frequently appeared insurmountable obstacles to further progress.

Title: The official records of the Oregon volunteers in the Spanish warand Philippine insurrection,Author: Oregon. Adjutant-General's Office. Page 558

Chinese collaboration under the American occupation. II

Efforts to secure a water line of communication by Manila Bay and theMalolos estuary were made immediately and continued for more than two weeks. The proper mouth of the estuary was found with considerable difficulty.
A bar had formed in front of it, making the entrance very tortuous. Up this two of our gunboats worked their way, but encountered well-driven piles and other obstructions which the insurgents had placed there and around which mud and sand had collected, making the water too shoal for navigation. Near the mouth of the stream a dredge was used and the gunboats removed a good many of the pile obstructions, but satisfactory results could not be obtained and the work was abandoned.
A considerable detail of soldiers was made to put in sufficient repair for immediate use of the railway from Manila to Malolos, and Chinese labor was hired. The track had been considerably damaged by the insurgents and a number of bridges partially destroyed, but Major Devol, of the Quartermaster'sDepartment, overcame all difficulties, and, with the engines captured at Caloocan, gave Malolos daily railway train service.

Title: The official records of the Oregon volunteers in the Spanishwar and Philippine insurrection,Author: Oregon. Adjutant-General's Office. Page 489

Chinese collaboration under the American occupation. I

The military operations which have since taken place in Panay will be noted in a later portion of this report. As soon as Iloilo was occupied by our troops a government was established and has been successfully prosecuted.
The rapid changes in the spirit, demeanor,and demonstrations of the inhabitants of Manila of all classes between the 5th and 10th of February could be witnessed only in a community made up of the most heterogeneous elements. On the 6th the educated business classes, foreign and native born, were surprisingly hopeful that hostilities would soon end. The natives of the middle and working classes were sullen, though undetermined.
The large Chinese laboring population rejoiced over the punishment of their race enemies and the opportunity offered it for looting the country from which the insurgent forces had been driven. These Chinese had followed quite closely our advancing lines and secured many minor articles of property which by them were considered of value.
We had employed them, too, extensively to perform a good deal of the work connected with supplying the troops at the front, and they performed faithful service.

Title: The official records of the Oregon volunteers in the Spanish war and Philippine insurrection, pag. 484-85
Author: Oregon. Adjutant-General's Office